International Men’s Day, 19 November 2023
If you are not doing anything else to mark International Men’s Day, there is a simple thing you can do which will take seconds: sign the petition calling for a Minister For Men.
The top themes for IMD 2023 are,
- Making a positive difference to the wellbeing and lives of men and boys
- Raising awareness and/or funds for charities supporting men and boys’ wellbeing
- Promoting a positive conversation about men, manhood and masculinity
On the charity thing, there are more male-friendly charities in the UK than you might have realised, see here (always remembering that “male-friendly” does not mean “female-unfriendly”, as those who would divide us assert).
If you are still at a loose end, other than reading the rest of this article you could check out today’s edition of the Male Psychology magazine, e.g., this piece.
For my contribution I thought I’d emulate Jess Phillips. Every international women’s day she reads out in Parliament a list of female victims of partner homicide. I’m sure her omission of the male victims must be just an accidental oversight. To save her the trouble of finding them (her usual sources will not have done so) I have provided a list below. Perhaps she could read them out in the debate for International Men’s Day, which is scheduled for Tuesday 21st Nov’23, 9:30.
I jest, of course. I’m not in favour of such public readings, by anyone anywhere. It only promotes the nasty flavour of some sort of unholy competition. The number of women directly killed by male partners is undoubtedly larger than that in the reverse sense. So if there were such a grim competitive game, it is conceded. (Do note the word directly, and see below).
No, my interest in compiling a list goes back to the first time I did so, nearly seven years ago. The reason is that, when it comes to male victims, there is a suspicion in some quarters that, somehow, the statistics are misleading; that men dying just isn’t the same as women dying. I don’t need to labour for this audience how that perception arises – through the empathy gap or gamma bias. It becomes harder to deny when specific cases are identified, and especially when one reads the case histories.
Ah, but the usual culprits will opine, women only kill their male partners when they have been driven to it by years of abuse. Well, there are such cases, though I suspect the courts may not always discriminate between mutual partner abuse (which, let us not forget, is the most common sort) and the cases of women-only victimisation. However, in many cases the courts DO identify mutual abuse. Moreover, and this is what certain parties are most keen to keep submerged, there are many cases where the man has been subject to persistent abuse by his female partner, and his eventual death is the result of its, almost inevitable, escalation. In other words, exactly the sort of case which rightly excites so much ire when the sexes are the other way around.
Below I list just the names and the manner of the killing involved in the partner homicides of men by women. (The method I used for searching means I did not pick up men killed by gay partners). I found 168 cases between 2011 and November 2023 (with a handful earlier).
For the period 2011 to 2016 you can find my brief case histories for each killing here.
For the period 2017 to present (November 2023) you can find the case histories here.
Invisible Dead Men 2.0
The list below relates to women who killed their male partners. I also record, in a list that follows the main list, (i) cases of attempted murder of a man by his female partner, and, (ii) lesbian or bisexual women who killed their female partners.
I do not include other domestic homicides. I found many cases of women who killed their mothers, or their fathers, or their sisters or brothers, or their grandmothers or grandfathers, but these are not included.
Cases of women killing other people, including children, are omitted. (There are many).
All cases of death due to careless/reckless driving are omitted. (There are many).
I also did not include cases where a jealous woman, rather than killing her partner, killed the female love rival. I noted several of these.
The issue of what constitutes being a “partner” is fraught. Before the mid-20th century, this could be identified with “spouse” as the prevalence of partners living together without being married was low. Obviously, this will no longer serve. Indeed, in most cases the partners listed below were not married. In some cases it is clear: if reports use the term “partner” or “boyfriend”, etc. In other cases I have taken a sexual involvement to be sufficient, or where the couple were living together, even without a known sexual involvement if the woman was financially dependent on the man (which, in the cases below, sometimes means “leeching off him”). However, living together alone would not be sufficient without those other qualifiers, thus excluding lodgers, etc.
This is a list of those convicted. There may well be others who were not convicted, or even discovered.
There are many cases where the killing was instigated by the female partner but she got one or more men to assist in carrying out the deed. I have only been able to capture those cases where the woman was convicted as well as the man/men. There may be other cases where a woman’s “commissioning hand” failed to be identified and therefore appear in reports to be merely “man kills man” cases.
This is a list of direct killings which resulted in homicide trials. Hence, suicides resulting from partner abuse, including suicides resulting from a fathers’ estrangement from his children by belligerent actions by the mother, are not included as I have no means of identifying them. This is a major omission because the total incidence of male suicide per year is massively greater than their deaths by direct partner homicide, by a factor of order 150 to 200 or so. Consequently, any sizeable proportion of these suicides which result from domestic abuse or parental alienation has the potential to completely swamp the direct partner homicide deaths. In fact, I can state that this must definitely be the case. But reliable statistics are not known. Domestic abuse induced suicides have become topical of late, but you can be sure that the usual suspects will only be presenting half the story.
The date stated in the list refers to the date of conviction, not the date of the killing. The latter will be one or two years earlier in most cases, and sometimes many years earlier. The ages of the victim are at death, obviously, whereas the age of the culprit is at the time of the trial unless otherwise stated.
Finally, the list will not be complete. It is merely what I found, which is ultimately reliant on news reports.
So, for the period 2011 to 2023, here is the list of 168 relevant homicide cases, plus 19 attempted murders (or soliciting for a murder) and 7 lesbian homicides of female partners by women. Recall the case histories can be read here and here.
- 2023: Rees Howarth stabbed to death. Convicted Katie Yeomans, 28
- 2023: Kasey Anderson, 24, stabbed to death. Convicted Natalie Bennett, 47
- 2023 Dylan Bacon, 39, stabbed to death. Convicted Learna Cheng, 27
- 2023: Paul Hanson, 54, stabbed to death. Convicted Teresa Hanson, 54
- 2023: Saqib Hussain, 21, and Hashim Ijazuddin, 21, car rammed into tree. Convicted three women, Ansreen Bukhari, Mahek Bukhari and Natasha Akhtar together with four men
- 2023: Paul Wagland, 52, stabbed to death. Convicted Sonja Blenkiron,41
- 2023: Liam Smith, 38, shot dead. Convicted Rachel Fulstow, 37, and Michael Hillier, 39
- 2023: Vishal Gohel death by blunt instrument. Convicted two women, Yarley Bruce-Annan, 22, and Faith Hoppie, 22, and three men
- 2023: Samuel Mayo, 34, stabbed to death. Convicted Blaze Wallace, 28
- 2023: Andrew Smith, 70, strangled to death. Convicted Lorraine Smith, 64
- 2023: Jonathan Gibbons, 50, stabbed to death. Convicted Joanne Moran, 43
- 2023: Kevin Caster, 43, stamped to death and drug overdose. Convicted Pauline Caster, 44
- 2023: Tai Jordan O’Donnell, 19, stabbed to death. Convicted Kamila Ahmad, 24
- 2023: Frankie Fitzgerald, 25, throat cut and stabbed. Convicted Shaye Groves, 27
- 2023: Thomas Campbell, 38, beaten, scalded and stabbed. Convicted Colleen Cambell and two men
- 2023: Saul Murray stabbed to death. Convicted two women Surpreet Dhillon and Temidayo Awe and two men
- 2022 Steven Davies, 39, stabbed to death. Convicted Carrie McGuiness, 35
- 2022: Keith Green, 40, stabbed to death. Convicted Louise Grieve, 38, and two men.
- 2022: Giovanni Wallace, 29, stabbed to death. Convicted Charlotte Ker, 35
- 2022: Gary Morgan, 36, stabbed to death. Convicted Emma Walsh, 31
- 2022: Bradley Lewis, 22, stabbed to death. Convicted Abigail White
- 2022: Anthony Dunn, 81, smothered. Convicted Janet Dunn, 73
- 2022: Paul Searing, 57, stabbed to death. Convicted Rebecca Searing, 52.
- 2022: Matthew Wormleighton, 45, stabbed to death. Convicted Hayley Keating, 32
- 2022: Mohammed Mukhtar, 53, bound and strangled. Convicted Charlotte Dootson, 23
- 2022 Nigel Johnson, 55, stabbed to death. Convicted Tanya Hoskin, 52
- 2022 Christopher Higgs, 21, stabbed to death, Convicted Charlie Stevenson, 21
- 2022: Paul Fletcher, 31, stabbed to death. Convicted Hannah Sindrey, 24
- 2022: Oliver O’Toole, 31, stabbed to death. Convicted Kayley Mahood, 30
- 2021: Adam Kroliowski, 32, stabbed to death. Convicted Anna Krolikowska
- 2021: Nigel Chapman, 62, stabbed to death. Convicted Jennifer Gwen Lloyd, 56
- 2021: David Jackson, 78, stabbed to death. Convicted Penelope Jackson
- 2021: William Middleton, 38, stabbed to death. Convicted Lorna Middleton, 36
- 2021: Lee McKnight, 26, beaten, tortured and drowned. Convicted two women, Carol Edgar, 47, and Coral Edgar, 26, and three men
- 2021: Michael Baines, 80, scalded with boiling sugar water, dying of severe burns. Convicted Corinna Smith, 59
- 2021: Warren Glover beaten to death. Convicted Melissa Stubbs, 30, and three men
- 2021: Joe Pooley, 22, drowned. Convicted Becki West-Davidson, 30, and two men
- 2021: Piotr Lacheta, 55, kicked and stamped to death. Convicted Claire Lunn, 48, and a man
- 2021: Raymond Cullen, 55, blunt instrument to head. Convicted Tracey Fielding, 47, and a man
- 2020: Mark Fisher, 33, stabbed to death. Convicted Lousie Henwood and a man
- 2020: Kieran Brown, 18, stabbed to death. Convicted Ellie Wain, 18.
- 2020: Zygimantas Kromelys, 26, stabbed to death. Convicted Indre Barysaite, 30, and a man
- 2020: Nigel Wright, 64, kicked to death. Convicted Melanie Wright, 48, and a man
- 2020: Wayne Coventry, 36, stabbed to death. Convicted Cordelia Farrell, 38.
- 2020: Craig Morse, 33, stabbed to death. Convicted Tonia Crabtree, 29
- 2020: Ronald Portz, 30, stabbed to death. Convicted Sally Godwin, 29
- 2020: Paul Tong, 54, beaten to death. Convicted Aliysa Ellis, 31, and a man
- 2020: Giedrius Juskaukas, 42, stabbed to death. Convicted Asta Juskauskiene, 35, and a man
- 2020: John Carroll, 52, stabbed to death. Convicted Deborah Carroll, 54
- 2019: John Robinson, 37, stabbed to death. Convicted Claire McMahon
- 2019: William Taylor, 69, strangulation/suffocation. Convicted Angela Taylor, 53, and a man
- 2019: Paul Taylor, 45, stabbed to death. Convicted Nicola Lee, 44
- 2019: Gary Cunningham, 29, stabbed to death. Convicted Olivia Labinjo-Halcrow, 29
- 2019: Paul Gillet, 54, beaten to death. Convicted Freya Parker-Magowan, 43, and a man
- 2019: John Maclean, 35, stabbed to death. Convicted Alex Glanfield-Collis, 29
- 2019: Steven Donaldson, 27, severance of spinal cord with machete. Convicted Tasmin Glass, 20, and two men.
- 2019: Atakan Atay stabbed to death. Convicted Helena Karine Atay, 42
- 2019: Kanagusabi Ramanathan, 76, beaten to death. Convicted, his wife Packiam Ramanathan, 73
- 2019: Kevin Nix, thrown from a car. Convicted Alison Skingsly, 43
- 2019: Martin Welsh stabbed to death. Convicted Natasha Welsh, 43
- 2019: James Field, stabbed to death. Convicted Lindsey Ann Gabriel, 31
- 2019: Jack Delany stabbed to death. Convicted Dee Lawrence, 32
- 2019: Filip Jaskiewicz stabbed to death. Convicted Martyna Ogonowska, 19
- 2019: Alan Grayson, 85, stabbed to death. Convicted Marjorie Grayson, 83
- 2019: Stephen Grant, 49, stabbed to death. Convicted Ashleigh Wallace, 27, and two men
- 2019: Haider Hayat, beaten and throat cut. Convicted two women, Saima Hayat and Shahida Abid and a man
- 2019: Mark Evans, 54, stabbed to death. Convicted Angela Ayre, 74
- 2019: Alan Cowie, 65, Asphyxiated by standing on throat. Convicted Sharyn Stewart, 53
- 2018: Conner Cowper, 18, stabbed to death. Convicted Jolene Doherty, 17
- 2018: Raul Chiriac, 26, stabbed to death. Convicted Simone Fergus, 34
- 2018: Christopher Pearson, 39, stabbed to death. Convicted Demi Harris, 21
- 2018: Khalid Safi, 18, stabbed to death. Convicted Fatima Khan, 21 (possibly and a man)
- 2018: Neal Jex, 52, stabbed to death. Convicted Natasha Jex
- 2018: Keith Robinson, 59, arson causing petrol vapour explosion. Convicted Julie Addinall, 54
- 2018: Kai Gareth Prothero, 47, stabbed to death. Convicted Michelle Ingham, 48
- 2018: Philip Rolph, 65, stabbed to death. Convicted Georgina Henshaw, 36
- 2018: Paul Lavelle, 50, cut to face with sharp implement. Convicted Sarah Lewis, 46
- 2017: Matthew Birkinshaw, encouraged suicide. Convicted Natasha Gordon, 44
- 2017: Pietro Sanna, 23, stabbed to death. Convicted Hasna Begum, 25
- 2017: Man Limbu, 75, strangled to death. Convicted Sun Maya Tamang, 50.
- 2017: Mark Shaw, 29, stabbed to death. Convicted Zoe Warren, 20, and a man
- 2017: Henry Wilson, 70, smothered to death. Convicted Susanne Wilson, 72
- 2017: John Poole, 50, stabbed to death. Convicted Lisa Thorpe, 33
- 2017: Mohammed Yousaf, 65, throat cut and beaten. Convicted Rukhsana Bibi, 38, and a man
- 2017: Derek Taylor, 71, struck with hammer and axe. Convicted Deanha Neely, 32
- 2017: David Butterfield, 43, stabbed to death. Convicted Michelle Spencer, 48
- 2017: Douglas Anderson stabbed to death. Convicted Louisa Anderson, 36
- 2017: Jimmy Prout, tortured to death over a period of months. Convicted Ann Corbett, Kay Rayworth, Myra Wood and Zahid Zaman
- 2017: Anthony Culley, 56, stabbed to death. Convicted Lesley Culley, 58
- 2017: Romualds Baluls, 32, stabbed to death. Convicted Viktorija Ratiuk, 31
- 2017: Michael Beckwith, 44, beaten to death. Convicted Rebecca Ryan, 22, and two men
- 2017: Fred Payne, 78, killed in fire (arson). Convicted Lisa Connelly, 42
- 2017: Alan Allan 34, stabbed to death by Ruth Carr, 32
- 2016: Jonathan Baines 44, stabbed to death by Pamela McLaggan, 51
- 2016: James Knight 26, stabbed to death by Emma-Jayne Magson, 23
- 2016: Jason Capper 45, stabbed to death by Lisa Withers, 49
- 2016: Jolyon Wray 46, stabbed to death by Deborah Napier, 53
- 2016: Tanveer Iqbal 33, strangled to death by Zatoon Bibi, 37
- 2016: Karl Bloxham 39, stabbed to death by Ellishia Allen, 29
- 2016: Shenol Erol Ali 32, stabbed to death by Gyuldzhan Hadzhieva
- 2016: Mark Hopes 45, beaten to death by Maria Louise Hopes, 46, and Leon Port, her son
- 2016: Stephen Burton 50, stabbed to deathby Julie Titheridge
- 2016: Alexander Duncan 59, stabbed to death by Seka Ritchie, 32,
- 2016: Glyn Evans 58, stabbed to death by Stella Downing, 37
- 2016: David Edwards 51, stabbed to death by Sharon Edwards, 42
- 2016: Lee Gillespie 26, stabbed to death by Jodie Willis and two others
- 2016: Norasab Hussain 33, stabbed to death by Sophie Lou Butler, 20,
- 2016: Damon Searson 23, stabbed to death by Terri-Marie Palmer, 23
- 2016: Marc Hastings 43, stabbed to death by Joanne Williams, 51
- 2015: Phillip Nicholson 22, stabbed to death by Isabella Gossling, 20, and one other
- 2015: Richard Brown 47 and Sophia Christopher, 4, stabbed to death by Shelley Christopher, 36
- 2015: Louis Spires 68, suffocated to death by Lynn Stallard, 67
- 2015: vDavid Butterworth 38, stabbed to death by Amanda O’Shaughnessy, 29
- 2015: Graham White 38, beaten to death by Katie Marie Rose, 30
- 2015: Norman Bruce 64, stamped to death by Sandra Bruce, 59
- 2015: Peter Hedley 49, beaten to death by Clare Humble, 50
- 2015: Kyle Farrell 21, stabbed to death by Farieissia Martin, 22
- 2015: Robert Dobinson 33, stabbed to death by Natasha Elderfield, 41
- 2015: Mark Cannon 44, stabbed to death by Nicola Coleman, 40
- 2015: Ashley Meadowcroft 18, stabbed to death by Rebecca Tootle, 20
- 2015: Jamie Belshaw 36, stabbed to death by Lisa Claire Palmer
- 2014: Alan Easton, stabbed to death by Angela Dowling, 48
- 2014: Scott Blackwood 30, tortured to death by Georgina Smith, 22, and two others
- 2014: John Fletcher 53, stabbed to death by Caroline Loweth, 49
- 2014: Leonard Pollen 58, pills & wrist slashing carried out by Ann Pollen, 47, in suicide pact which she then failed to carry out on herself
- 2014: Geraint Hughes 60, stabbed to death by Marion Hughes, 59
- 2014: Geoffrey Carter 58, stabbed and then death by smoke inhalation following arson on his flat by Susan Buckley, 57
- 2014: Majid Khan 15 and Anum Khan 8, (siblings of intended target Amjad Khan) killed by arson carried out by Fiaz Munshi, 38
- 2014: Scott Dunne, stabbed to death by Alexia Heckles, 35
- 2014: Peter Davegun 42, beaten to death by Samantha Adeokun, 41
- 2014: Barry Wilkins 71, stabbed to death by Susan Hughes, 48
- 2014: Czeslaw Zawadzki 58, stabbed to death by Miroslawa Dawidowicz, 58,
- 2014: Martin Ackroyd 50, suffocated and strangled by Nicola Bedford, 30, and one other
- 2013: Richard Sherratt 57, attered to death y Emma Bate, 26, and Paramjit Singh
- 2013: Darren Orrett 32, stabbed to death by Dawn Barr, 42
- 2013: Peter McMahon 68, beaten to death by Sharon Swinhoe, 44 and one other
- 2013: Nusrat Begum 36 (intended victim was Dawood Hussain) death in fire by arsonists Tina Andrews, 30, and Nussrat Khatoon, 39
- 2013: Lukasz Slaboszewski 31 stabbed to death by Joanna Dennehy, 31
- 2013: Kevin Lee 48, stabbed to death by Joanna Dennehy, 31 (she also killed non-partner John Chapman and attempted the murder of two other men chosen at random)
- 2013: Michael Kerr 30, stabbed to death to Charlotte Coulson and Alicia Davis, both 22
- 2013: John Sampford 83, strangled to death by Sheila Sampford, 75,
- 2013: Michael Moss 48, beaten to death by Collette Booth 47 with two others
- 2013: Gareth Matthews 32, stabbed to death by Rebecca Dormer, 23
- 2009: Piotr Rafacz, stamped to death by Teresa Rafacz
- 2012: Don Banfield 63 was (probably) killed by Lynette Banfield, 41, and her mother by an unknown method. But their convictions were quashed on appeal because it was not possible to determine which one of them, or both, did it.
- 2012: Lionel Morl 49, beaten to death by Tracy Hurrell, 32, and one other
- 2012: Winston Fernandez 69, beaten to death by Natalia Woolley, 38
- 2012: Sean Martin 21, stabbed to death by Shaniece Dobson, 21
- 2012: Alan Kopp 30, stabbed to death by r Susan Colquhoun
- 2012: James Dornan 33, “glassed” leading to death by Natalie Scott, 27
- 2012: John Whyte 50, stabbed to death by Elizabeth Reid 58
- 2012: Colin Ballinger 66, suffocated by Joyce Evans 69.
- 2012: Ian Graham 51, stabbed to death by Louise Cox 45
- 2012: Alan Clinch 48, stabbed to death by Sandra Clinch, 49
- 2012: Darren Dempsey 37, stabbed to death by Cherie Anne Cooper 25
- 2012: Karl Jones 37, blunt force beating by Maxine Oliver 44
- 2011: Kevin Carter 30, stabbed to death by Janice Carter, 29
- 2011: Paul Norfolk 77, beaten to death with hammer by Bunthawee Rimmer, 48
- 2011: Shaun Corey 42, drugged, tied up, strangled and suffocated by Karen Otmani 42
- 2011: Carlos Vilela 45, burnt alive with petrol by Georgina Vilela 45 (also crippling injuries to his daughters)
- 2011: Arunas Ramanauskas, stabbed to death by Eliska Novotna 23
- 2011: Martin Rusling 44, stabbed to death by Carol Kemp, 45
- 2011: Alan Meeking 49, car crash caused by Caroline Meeking 45
- 2011: David Twigg, fire/smoke inhalation (locked in store cupboard by Julie Dixon, 43, who then lit a fire outside the door)
- 2004: Kenneth Quy killed by Tracey Antoinette Van Dungey six years before…
- 2010: Carl Everson,41, stabbing and stamping by Tracey Antoinette Van Dungey, 43
- 2010: Andrew Oates 44, killed with hammer by r Sharon Hollinsworth, 44, and her two children
- Lakhvinder Cheema 39, poisoned by Lakhvir Kaur Singh, 40
In addition, here are 19 cases of attempted murder (or soliciting murder) by a female partner, where the man was lucky to survive, or a conspiracy to murder that did not come off…
- Douglas Patrick 70, survived poisoning by Jacqueline Patrick, 54
- Alexander Cameron, survived stabbing by Joycelynn Currie, 48
- Leng Hie Tiong 38, survived stabbing by Chooi Cheung
- Unnamed ex-husband, survived stabbing by Andrea Santon, 53
- Richard O’Rourke, survived stabbing by Yvonne Crawford, 44
- Stephen Watt 52, survived stabbing by Elaine Pledge, 55
- Andrew Lyle, 47, Survived being drugged, doused in petrol and set alight by Karen Lyle, 50
- Carl Gallagher, Contract killing arranged by Kelly Cliff, 40, but didn’t come off
- Paul Belton, 50, whose murder Helen Hewlett had solicited, but which the police intercepted
- David Harrison, 59, who Samantha Smith attempted to murder by stabbing after her long campaign of domestic violence against him
- Unnamed boyfriend aged 25 who was the victim of an attempted murder by shooting, for which Shannon Rule, 22, and Danial Gaudin, 23, were convicted.
- Unnamed ex-boyfriend was the subject of a botched murder attempt by Sophie George, 20, despite her written plan and careful preparation.
- Rob Parkes, unharmed, but the subject of three attempts by his ex-wife, Vistora Breeden, 39, to have him killed
- Michael Coen, attempted murder by stabbing by Jessica Stunnel, 47 (also stabbed his new partner)
- Anonymous boy, 14, attempted murder by blunt instrument and stabbing by a 14 year old girl and her 14 year old boy accomplice
- Ray Weatherall survive poisoning, shooting and electrocution/burning in an attempt to murder him by his wife Hayley Weatherall, 32, and her lover, Glenn Pollard, 49, and his daughter, Heather Pollard, 20
- Iain Fullerton was repeatedly stabbed by his wife of 29 years. Grace Fullerton, in an attempt to murder him
- Jonathan Ingham was stabbed multiple times by his ex-partner, Gillian McKenzie, 52, in an attempt to murder him
- Daniel Rotariu, 31, survived being doused in sulphuric acid as he slept by his girlfriend Katie Long, 52, who was convicted of attempted murder
And finally, seven cases of lesbian killers, or would-be killers,
- Wendy Thorpe 42, battered to death by lesbian lover Tracy Ashfield
- Lisa Ann Quigley 30, stabbed to death by lesbian lover Shazia Johnston
- Leng Hie Tiong 38, survived stabbing by lesbian lover Chooi Cheung
- Another lesbian killer was Alix Wilson, but it was not her partner she killed, rather she killed on behalf of her partner
- Siobhan Collins-Grant, 26, stabbed a female love rival, Sahkira Loseke, 22, through the heart after being accused of flirting with her girlfriend, Savannah Simpson.
- Victoria Arthur and her partner Julie Palmer were jailed, in Athur’s case for the murder of Nadine Burden, 36, in Palmer’s case for assisting her.
- Becky Reid, 32, committed serious and sustained violence on her 30 year old female partner, Lyndsey Vaux, over many years. Vaux ultimately died of the combined effects of 90 separate injuries.